United States
Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research

US Antarctic Science Meeting

12-15 July 2021

Online (Zoom) conference hosted by the
US Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (US-SCAR)

No registration fee
This meeting is supported by funding from NSF/Office of Polar Programs/Antarctic Sciences

Abstract Book with Detailed Schedule of Talks

Photo Caption Social



US-SCAR is hosting a meeting for US scientists who are conducting research in, from or about Antarctica and the Southern Ocean. Scientists interested in getting involved in Antarctic research through US programs are also welcome and encouraged to attend. This conference is open to all US scientists and anyone interested in US Antarctic research. There is no registration fee.

The meeting will provide opportunities for US Antarctic scientists to get together and present their work, and for early career researchers and others new to Antarctic science to learn about SCAR and the various resources available to US scientists for Antarctic-related research. There will be a mix of Lightning Talks, panels and social activities for the US Antarctic Community to meet and interact.

The meeting and associated events will be on Zoom. The schedule (see below) is set for two hours each day (one hour science and one hour panel) with additional time added for socializing. The panels will have brief presentations by panelists, and most of the time will be devoted to questions and discussion.


The Zoom link for the meeting is provided with registration. https://usfca.zoom.us/meeting/register/tZEpdO2hqTIjH9aFTNATDn_Zl8XS-tRnidQz


Start time: 3 pm EDT, 2 pm CDT, 1 pm MDT, 12 pm PDT, 11 am AKDT, 9 am HST

Abstract Book with Detailed Schedule of Talks

July 12, Monday    
  12:00 pm PDT:

Opening session: Introduction to Meeting, Deneb Karentz

     The US Antarctic Program Data Center: a Resource for Supporting US Antarctic Research
     Frank O. Nitsche, K. Tinto, S. Carbotte, N. Shane

  12:30 pm PDT:

SCAR Panel: Introduction to SCAR Science Groups and US Representatives

Moderator: Al Weatherwax, US Alternate Delegate to SCAR, Merrimack College, Andover, MA

Topics and Panelists:

  • SCAR Geosciences Group
    US Representatives: Peter Doran, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Samantha Hansen, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL; Sridhar Anandakrishnan, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
  • SCAR Physical Sciences Group
    US Representatives: David Bromwich, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; John Cassano, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO; Erin Petitt, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR
  • SCAR Life Sciences Group
    US Representatives: Byron Adams, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT; Charles Amsler, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL; Marc Shepanek, NASA, Washington DC; George Watters, NOAA
  1:30 pm PDT: Social activity
July 13, Tuesday    
  12:00 pm PDT: Science presentations (Sessions A,B,C)* Abstract Book
  1:00 pm PDT: Science presentations (Sessions D,E,F,G)* Abstract Book
  2:00 pm PDT: Social activity
July 14, Wednesday    
  12:00 pm PDT: Science presentations (Sessions H,I,J)* Abstract Book
  1:00 pm PDT:

NSF Panel: Introduction to the US Antarctic Program for Early Career Researchers

Moderator: Paul Cutler, Antarctic Sciences Program Director, Glaciology, Ice Core Science and Geomorphology

Topics and Panelists

  • How to interact with NSF
    Maria Vernet, Antarctic Sciences Program Director, Organisms and Ecosystems
  • Nailing Broader Impacts
    Karla Heidelberg, Antarctic Sciences Program Director, Organisms and Ecosystems, Polar Education
  • Writing a Good Logistics Plan (even if you haven’t been to Antarctica)
    Jessie Crain, Antarctic Infrastructure and Logistics, Antarctic Research Support Manager
  • Working with NSF to Communicate Your Research
    Terri Edillon, Office of Polar Programs Lead Communications Specialist
  2:00 pm PDT: Social activity
July 15, Thursday    
  12:00 pm PDT: Science presentations (Sessions K,L,M,N)* Abstract Book
  1:00 pm PDT:

Antarctic Geospatial Data, Remote Sensing and GIS

Moderator: Paul Morin, Director, Polar Geospatial Center and co-chair of the SCAR Standing Committee on Antarctic Geographic Information


  • Cole Kelleher - Polar Geospatial Center
  • Ian Howat - Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center, The Ohio State University
  • Mark Salvatore - Planetary Exploration Lab, Northern Arizona University
  • Heather Lynch - Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University
  2:00 pm PDT: Social activity - Photo Caption Social

*5-minute Lightning Talks with questions at end of session, number of concurrent sessions will be determined by number of abstracts submitted

Lightning Talks

Anyone formally affiliated with a US institution, organization, agency, etc. can submit an abstract for a talk. The abstract submission deadline is June 21, 2020. Abstract should be <1300 characters.

To maximize interactions, provide ample time for questions and to keep the online format effective, talks will be pre-recorded and limited to five minutes, what is referred to as a “Lightning Talk”. There is much information about Lightning Talks available on the Internet, here are a few sources with explanations and tips: SSI, ST, BL.

Please see the instructions for details specific to the US Antarctic Science Meeting. You will only be allowed one abstract as a lead author, there is no limit as a co-author.

For presenters: Since a five-minute talk means that you may have to skip over many details, you have the option to provide a poster or a longer pre-recorded presentation (maximum 15 minutes) that will be posted online for public viewing. Anyone interested in the details of your work will have the opportunity to learn more. Optional supplemental materials can be submitted online.

Schedule for Lightning Talks

Monday, July 12, 12 pm PDT, Introductory Session

The US Antarctic Program Data Center (USAP-DC) – a Resource for Supporting US Antarctic Research
Frank O. Nitsche, K. Tinto, S. Carbotte, N. Shane

Tuesday, July 13, 12 pm PDT

Abstract Book with Detailed Schedule of Talks

Session A

Moderator: Lynn Kaluzienski, University of Maine


Assessing HF Radio Wave Propagation in Antarctica with a Radio Link Between the McMurdo and South Pole Stations
Binjie Liu, Gareth Perry, Alex Chartier


Monitoring the Geospace Environment from Antarctica with Remotely Deployed Autonomous Instrumentation: Current Efforts and New Opportunities
Michael Hartinger, Bob Clauer, Zhonghua Xu, Shane Coyle, Joseph Baker, Hyomin Kim


Geospace Observations in the Polar Cap Using a New Autonomous Instrument Network
Hyomin Kim, Andrew Gerrard, Gareth Perry, Geonhwa Jee, Nathaniel Frissell, Changsup Lee, Hyuk-Jin Kwon, Young-Bae Ham


Radio Emissions of Auroral Origin
James LaBelle


Unveiling Our Dynamic Infrared Sky
Mansi M. Kasliwal, Roger Smith, Tony Travouillon, Anna Moore, Michael Ashley, Tristan Guillot


Exploring the Cosmos with the South Pole Telescope
Amy N. Bender, on behalf of the South Pole Telescope Collaboration

Session B

Moderator: Erin Pettit, Oregon State University


Mesoscale, Tidal and Seasonal Drivers of the Weddell Sea Overturning Circulation
Andrew L. Stewart, Julia E. Hazel


How Much Lee-Wave Energy from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current Bottom Flow Dissipates Locally?
Manuel O. Gutierrez-Villanueva, Teresa K. Chereskin, Janet Sprintall, John A. Goff


Turbidite Deposits in the Ross Sea as a Record of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) Formation During the Pliocene-Pleistocene (IODP Site U1524)
Natalia Varela, Brian Romans, Molly Patterson, Denise Kulhanek, Jeanine Ash, Robert McKay, Laura DeSantis


Dynamical Controls on Transport and Transformation of Antarctic Bottom Water across the Antarctic Circumpolar Current
Carlyn Schmidgall, Yidongfang (Clara) Si, Andrew Stewart


Antarctic Bottom Water Export Across the Southern Ocean: Conduit vs Blender
Aviv Solodoch, Andrew L. Stewart, Andrew McC. Hogg, Andrew Kiss, Adele Morrison, Andrew Thompson, Sarah Purkey, Laura Cimoli


Heat Transport Across the Antarctic Slope Front Controlled by Cross-Slope Salinity Gradients
Yidongfang Si, Andrew L. Stewart, Ian Eisenman


Reconstructing Antarctic Sea Ice Extent During the 20th Century
Ryan L. Fogt, Amanda M. Sleinkofer

Session C

Moderator: Byron Adams, Brigham Young University and Candance Grimes, Auburn University


Inferring Evolutionary Relationships of Families Within Pycnogonida (Sea Spiders) Using Whole Mitochondrial Genomes
Jessica R. Zehnpfennig, Rebecca M. Varney, Kenneth M. Halanych, Andrew R. Mahon


In Situ Observations of the Benthic Ctenophore Lyrocteis flavopallidus
Margaret O. Amsler, Kat Bolstad, Claude De Broyer


Benthic Megafaunal Invertebrate Diversity of the Western Antarctic Revealed by Photo Transects
Candace J. Grimes, Kyle Donnelly, Che Ka, Nusrat Noor, Andrew Mahon, Kenneth M. Halanych


Bioaccumulation in Epibenthic Megafauna Adjacent to McMurdo Station, Antarctica
Terry A Palmer, Andrew G Klein, Steve T Sweet, Amanda J Frazier, Paul A Montagna, Jennifer Beseres Pollack


Antarctic Deep-Sea Coral Larvae Are Resilient to End-Century Ocean Warming
Julia W. Johnstone, Jay J. Lunden, Rhian G. Waller, Nicole J. Poulton, Hanae Togami


Using Environmental DNA (eDNA) Metabarcoding to Investigate Marine Benthic Invertebrate Biodiversity in Antarctica
Madeline N. Armstrong, Kenneth M. Halanych, Andrew R. Mahon


Genomics Adaptations of the Brittlestar Astrotoma agassizii to Envronmental Differences
Kenneth M. Halanych, Candace J. Grimes, Damien S. Waits, Kyle T. David

Tuesday, July 13, 1 pm PDT

Abstract Book with Detailed Schedule of Talks

Session D

Moderator: Joanna Kelley, Washington State University


Small Temperature Changes have Big Effects on Antarctic Embryos
Amy Moran, Ming Wei Aaron Toh, Graham Lobert


Uncovering Molecular Mechanisms of Temperature Sensation in Notothenioid Fishes
Julia M York, Harold H. Zakon


Warm Acclimation Increases Upper Thermal Tolerance in Juvenile Trematomus bernacchii
Milica Mandic, Nann A. Fangue, Anne E. Todgham


Antarctic Eelpout Genome Assembly and the Evolution of Type III Antifreeze Proteins
Joanna Kelley, Scott Hotaling


Impact of Historical Contingency in the Adaptive Radiation of Antarctic Fishes
Jacob M. Daane, Matthew P. Harris, H. William Detrich III

Session E

Moderators: John Cassano, Mckenzie Dice, University of Colorado - Boulder


The Antarctic Meteorological Research and Data Center
Matthew A. Lazzara, Jean M. Philips, Matthew G. Noojin, Lee J. Welhouse, Jerrold O. Robiadek, Jeff F. Havens, Owen H. Graham, Taylor P. Norton, David E. Mikolajczyk


Quantitatively Estimate the Radiative Effects of Aerosols Above Clouds
Baike Xi, Xiquan Dong, Yafang Guo, Xingyu Zhang


The Siple Dome Challenge: Optimizing Atmospheric Fieldwork at Remote Antarctic Locations
Dan Lubin, Madison L. Ghiz, Ryan C. Scott


A New Model for Antarctic Convective Variability in Earth System Models
Anand Gnanadesikan, Cassidy Speller, Grace Ringlein, John San Soucie, Jordan Thomas, Marie-Aude Pradal


Assessing Physical Relationships Between Atmospheric State and Fluxes and Boundary Layer Variability at McMurdo Station, Antarctica
Mckenzie Dice, John Cassano


Applying Artificial Intelligence Methodologies to the Study of Weather and Climate in Antarctica
Thomas Y. Chen


Antarctic Peninsula Warming Triggers Enhanced Basal Melt Rates Throughout West Antarctica
Andrew Thompson, Mar Flexas, Michael Schodlok, Kevin Speer

Session F

Moderator: Byron Adams, Brigham Young University and Schuyler Borges, Northern Arizona University


Metabolic Response to Temperature of a Mesophilic Antarctic Nematode
Colin M. Robinson


Effects of Temperature on the Viability of Plectus murrayi
Brandon Velez, Colin Robinson


Controls on Land Surface Temperature of Moss Banks in the Western Antarctic Peninsula Mapped by a Multi-Sensor UAV
David W. Beilman, Derek J Ford, Dulcinea V Groff


Counting Carbon I: Advances in Ecological Remote Sensing in Taylor Valley, Antarctica
Mark R. Salvatore, John E. Barrett, Schuyler R. Borges, Sarah N. Power, Eric R. Sokol, Lee F. Stanish


Counting Carbon II: Spectral Endmember Diversity and Small-Scale Distributions
Schuyler R. Borges, Mark R. Salvatore, Lee F. Stanish, Sarah N. Power, Eric R. Sokol, John E. Barrett Barrett, Lillian R. Ostrach


Counting Carbon III: Investigating Detection Limits of Microbial Communities Using Remote Sensing Data
Sarah N. Power, Schuyler R. Borges, Eric R. Sokol, Lee F. Stanish, Mark R. Salvatore, John E. Barrett

Session G

Moderator: Peter Doran, Louisiana State University


Regional Versus Global Forcing on Paleoproductivity in the Indian Sector of the Southern Ocean over the Past 1 Million Years
Emily A. Kaiser, Katharina Billups, Louisa Bradtmiller


Weddell Sea Embayment Deglaciations Traced by Provenance of Ice-Rafted Debris
Trevor Williams, Sidney R. Hemming, Kathy Licht, Liana Agrios, Stefanie A Brachfeld, Tina van de Flierdt, Claus-Dieter Hillenbrand, Werner Ehrmann, Gerhard Kuhn


Revisiting the Chronology of Glacial Lake Washburn: Initial Results from Recent IRSL Sampling in Taylor Valley
M.S. Stone, P.T. Doran, A. Keen-Zebert, C. Neudorf


Carbonate Records of Ice-Covered Lake Ecosystems
Tyler Mackey, Jared Clance


An Investigation of Rock Weathering Processes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica Using Acoustic Emission and Micrometeorological Monitoring
Jennifer L. Lamp, Martha-Cary Eppes, Kate M. Swanger, Joerg M. Schaefer, Allie Balter-Kennedy


Mapping the Extent and Timing of Water Track Formation with High-Temporal Resolution Satellite Imagery of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica
L.C. Kuentz, J.S. Levy, M.R. Salvatore

Wednesday, July 14, 12 pm PDT

Abstract Book with Detailed Schedule of Talks

Session H

Moderator: Al Weatherwax, Merrimack College


SPT-3G+: a New High-Frequency Camera for Cosmic Microwave Background Surveys with the South Pole Telescope
Karia Dibert, SPT Collaboration


The Next Generation Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment, CMB-S4
John Carlstrom for the CMB-S4 collaboration


IceCube Science Overview
Lu Lu for the IceCube Collaboration


Studying Optical Properties of the South Pole Ice with the Icecube Neutrino Observatory
Dmitry Chirkin


The IceCube Upgrade
Ben Jones, the IceCube Collaboration


The IceCube-Gen2 Neutrino Observatory
Claudio Kopper (for the IceCube-Gen2 Collaboration)

Session I

Moderator: Sridhar Anandakrishnan, The Pennsylvania State University


A 10kyr Record of Subglacial Lake Flushing Beneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet
Sophia Pinter, Gavin Piccione, Terrence Blackburn, Slawek Tulaczyk, Brandon Cheney


Past Interactions Between Local Glaciers and the Grounded Ross Sea Ice in the Royal Society Range, Antarctica
Maraina Miles, Brenda Hall, George Denton


Modeling Ross Ice Shelf Sensitivity to Changes Along Its Western Lateral Margin Using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM)
Lynn Kaluzienski, Peter Koons, Zoe Courville, Nicole Schlegel, Steven Arcone, Martin Truffer, Seth Campbell, Ellyn Enderlin, Chris Borstad


Surface Mass Balance Modeling with the Snow-ice Enhanced WRF-ice Model for the Larsen C Ice-shelf, Antarctic Peninsula
Jing Zhang, Liping Luo


Antarctic Peninsula Regional Circulation and Its Impact on the Surface Melt of Larsen C Ice Shelf Including Its Recent Decline
Chongran Zhang, Jing Zhang, Qigang Wu


Sensitivity of the Relationship Between Antarctic Ice Shelves and Iron Supply to Projected Changes in the Atmospheric Forcing
Michael Dinniman, Eileen Hofmann, Pierre St-Laurent, Kevin Arrigo, Gert van Dijken

Session J

Moderator: Chuck Amsler, University of Alabama - Birmingham


Using Models to Improve Our Understanding of Antarctic Krill and Their Ecological Role: Report of the Integrating Climate and Ecosystem Dynamics of the Southern Ocean (ICED) Workshop, 2021
Zephyr Sylvester, Devi Veytia, Alexis Bahl, Eileen Hofmann, Eugene Murphy, Nadine Johnston, Stuart Corney, Cassandra Brooks, Bettina Meyer, Sally Thorpe


Physiology of Lipid-storing Copepods during Summer Along the West Antarctic Peninsula
Ann M. Tarrant, Cory A. Berger, Deborah K. Steinberg


Conserved and Divergent Gene Expression Changes in Response to Starvation in Two Southern Ocean Copepods
Cory A. Berger, Deborah K. Steinberg, Ann M. Tarrant


Who Cares More About Chemical Defenses in the Red Seaweed Plocamium sp. – the Seaweed or Its Only Grazer?
Heiser S., Amsler C.D., Brothers C.J., Shilling A.J., Davis C.B., Hutchens L., Amsler M.O., McClintock J.B., Baker B.J.


Macroalgal Cover Correlated with Annual Sea Ice Cover Along a Latitudinal Gradient on the Central Western Antarctic Peninsula
Amsler, C.D., M.O. Amsler, A.G. Klein, S. Heiser, A.W.E. Galloway, K. Iken, J.B. McClintock, A.T. Lowe, J.G. Schram, R. Whippo

Suplemental poster at https://drive.google.com/file/d/1cltHVkN_4xEr9ad5Zc9saP6duvjNm0tQ/view

Thursday, July 15, 12 pm PDT

Abstract Book with Detailed Schedule of Talks

Session K

Moderator: Al Weatherwax, Merrimack College


The Askaryan Radio Array: Status and Prospects
Amy Connolly for the ARA Collaboration


The Radar Echo Telescope for Neutrinos and Cosmic Rays
Steven Prohira on behalf of Radar Echo Telescope


The Event Horizon Telescope in Antarctica: Very Long Baseline Interferometry with the South Pole Telescope
Amy E. Lowitz, Junhan Kim, Daniel P. Marrone


BICEP/Keck: Constraining Primordial Gravitational Waves with CMB Polarization Observations from the South Pole
Marion Dierickx, on behalf of the BICEP/Keck Collaboration


Instrumentation and Polar Infrastructure Development Supporting the BICEP Array Telescope
Benjamin L. Schmitt, For the BICEP Array Collaboration

Session L

Moderator: Michael Stone, Louisiana State University


Antarctic Ice Sheet Growth During the Middle Miocene
Imogen M. Browne, Amelia E. Shevenell, R. Mark Leckie, Justin P. Dodd, Marialena Christopoulou, Francesca Sangiorgi, Evi Wubben, Joseph Prebble, Bella J. Duncan, Jay Cockrell, Oliver M. Esper, Jeanine Ash, Osamu Seki, Tina van de Flierdt, James W. Marschalek, Tim E. van Peer, David M. Harwood, Lara F. Pérez, Florence Colleoni, Robert M. McKay, Laura De Santis, Denise K. Kulhanek, and the Expedition 374 Scientists


A Long-Term Record of Antarctic Ice Sheet Loss to Millennial-Scale Ocean Warming
G. Piccione, T. Blackburn, S. Tulaczyk, E.T. Rasbury, M. Hain


Monitoring the Ross Ice Shelf: Deep Clustering of Antarctic Seismic Data
William Jenkins, Peter Gerstoft, Michael Bianco, Peter Bromirski


Evidence of Post-Stagnation Grounding Zone Retreat at Kamb Ice Stream
J. D. Lawrence, B. E. Schmidt, P. M. Washam, C. Stevens, C. Hulbe, H. Horgan, G. Dunbar, T. Calkin, C. Stewart, N. Robinson, P. Dejoux, M. Meister, B. Hurwitz, E. Quartini, D. J. Dichek, A. D. Mullen, A. Spears


Discovery of Two Stacked Buried Ice Masses >1.1 Myrs Old; Ong Valley, Antarctica
Marie Bergelin, Jaakko Putkonen, Greg Balco, Dan Morgan, Ronald K. Matheney, Lee B. Corbett


West Antarctica Sources for IRD in Amundsen Sea IODP379 Cores Substantiated by Multi-dating of Dropstones
Christine Siddoway, Stuart N. Thomson, Stephen E. Cox, Sidney Hemming

Session M

Moderator: Byron Adams, Brigham Young University and André Franco, Colorado State University


Discovery of an Antarctic Ascidian-associated Uncultivated Verrucomicrobia that Encodes Antimelanoma Palmerolide Biosynthetic Capacity
Alison E. Murray, Chien-Chi Lo, Hajnalka E. Daligault, Nicole E. Avalon, Robert W. Read, Karen W. Davenport, Mary L. Higham, Yuliya Kunde, Armand E.K. Dichosa, Bill J. Baker, Patrick S.G. Chain


Mining Antarctic Ascidian-associated Bacterial Genomes Reveals Numerous Biosynthetic Gene Clusters and Signatures of Cold Adaptation
Nathan M. Ernster, Miranda H. Seixas, Agusto R. Luzuriaga-Neira, David Alvarez-Ponce, Nicole E. Avalon, Bill J. Baker, Alison E. Murray


Polar Night Plankton Community Genomic Structuring of the Palmer Deep
Connie Phong, Angela Zoumplis, Andrew Allen, Drishti Kaul, Deneb Karentz and participants of the 2016 NSF International Antarctic Biology Training Program


Glacial Legacies: Microbial Communities of Antarctic Refugia
Jesse Jorna, Abby Jackson, Byron Adams


Fine-Scale Identification of Soil Refugia in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica by Scottnema lindsayae COI Haplotype Diversity
Abigail C Jackson, Byron J Adams


Response of Antarctic Soil Fauna to Climate-Driven Changes Since the Last Glacial Maximum
André L.C. Franco, Byron J. Adams, Melisa A. Diaz, Nathan P. Lemoine, Nicholas B. Dragone, Noah Fierer, W. Berry Lyons, Ian Hogg, Diana H. Wall

Session N

Moderator: Polly Penhale and Kim Ohnemus, NSF/Polar Programs


Monitoring the Health of the Antarctic Marine Ecosystems Using the Emperor Penguin as a Sentinel (MARE)
Daniel P. Zitterbart, Céline Le Bohec


Intertidal Foraging by Gentoo Penguins in a Macroalgal Raft on the Western Antarctic Peninsula
James B McClintock, Charles D. Amsler, Margaret O. Amsler, William R. Fraser


Sediment Cores Proxies Reflect Sub-Antarctic Marine Predator Population Dynamics Relative to Past Anthropogenic Exploitation and Recent Climate Change
Allyson Kristan, Michael Polito, Kanchan Maiti


Why Are Penguins and Seals Dramatically Increasing in Southern Ross Sea?
D. Ainley, V. Morandini, L. Salas, N. Nur, J. Rotella, M. LaRue, F. Shanhun, M. LaRue, R. Foster, C. Parkinson, R. Zwok, K. Arrigo, G. van Dijken, R. Beltran, K. Goetz, S. Kim, C. Brooks, G. Kooyman, P. Ponganis, D. Anderson


Integral Projection Modeling for Weddell Seals: Evaluating Population Dynamics and the Importance of Individual Heterogeneity
K.R. Macdonald, J.T. Paterson, J.J. Rotella


Long-Lasting Effects of Unusual Demographic Events on Weddell Seal Population Dynamics
Jay J. Rotella, Robert A. Garrott


Subsurface Eddy Facilitates Retention of Diel Vertical Migrators in a Biological Hotspot
Katherine Hudson, Matthew J. Oliver, Josh Kohut, Jon H. Cohen, Michael S. Dinniman, John Klinck, Hank Statscewich, Kimberly Bernard, William Fraser